Browse an extensive list of literature relevant to Gambia Goat Dairy's goals and ongoing efforts. Human Nutrition articles discuss the current nutritional status in The Gambia as well as recommended interventions and the role of animal protein in the diet of chronically malnourished individuals. Livestock and Dairy articles discuss the practices involved in rearing ruminants and producing dairy in West Africa. Biodiversity and Ecosystems articles discuss the importance of reducing agricultural land use through sustainable livestock practices as well as the current issues facing biodiversity in The Gambia. Business and Economics documents discuss the role of social entrepreneurship in the developing world as well as the status of the current and future dairy industry in The Gambia.

Human Nutrition

FAO. 1988. FAO - Safe Low-Cost Milk Pasteurisation for Small-scale Dairy Enterprises. Food and Agricultural Organziation of the United Nations.

Haenlein, G. 1992. Role of goat meat and milk in human nutrition. Pages 575-580 in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Goats.

Haenlein, G. 2004. Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Ruminant Research 51:155-163.

NaNA. 2011. Strategic Plan 2011-2015 For Implementation of Gambia's National Nutrition Programme. The Gambia National Nutrition Agency.

NaNA. 2015. National Nutrition Survey. National Nutrition Agency Office of the Vice President and Ministry of Women's Affairs and Ministry of Women's Affairs.

Park, Y. 1994. Hypo-allergenic and therapeutic significance of goat milk. Small Ruminant Research 14:151-159.

Park, Y. 2012. Goat milk and human nutrition. Page 31 in First Asia Dairy Goat Conference.

UNICEF. 2012. Gambia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 - Final Report. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

UNICEF. 2015. Undernutrition contributes to nearly half of all deaths in children under 5 and is widespread in Asia and Africa. Current Status and Progress.

USDA. 2016. Milk Production. United States Department of Agriculture

Waterlow, J. 1972. Classification and definition of protein-calorie malnutrition. British medical journal 3:566.


Livestock and Dairy

ADB. 2015. Project Appraisal Report - Agricultural Value Chains Development Project. African Development Bank Group.

Belewu, M., N. Muhammed, F. Ajayi, and D. Abdulgafar. 2009. Performance characteristics of goat fed Trichoderma treated feather meal-rice husk mixture. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology 9:203-208.

Chilliard, Y., F. Glasser, A. Ferlay, L. Bernard, J. Rouel, and M. Doreau. 2007. Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109:828-855.

Coleby, P. 2012. Natural Goat Care. Acres U.S.A.

Collier, R. J., S. Doelger, H. Head, W. Thatcher, and C. Wilcox. 1982. Effects of heat stress during pregnancy on maternal hormone concentrations, calf birth weight and postpartum milk yield of Holstein cows. Journal of animal science 54:309-319.

Dhollander, S., J. Bos, S. Kora, M. Sanneh, M. Gaye, S. Leak, D. Berkvens, and S. Geerts. 2005. Susceptibility of West African Dwarf goats and WAD× Saanen crosses to experimental infection with Trypanosoma congolense. Veterinary parasitology 130:1-8.

Fuquay, J. 1981. Heat stress as it affects animal production. Journal of animal science 52:164-174.

Hempen, M., F. Unger, S. Münstermann, M. T. Seck, and V. Niamy. 2004. The hygienic status of raw and sour milk from smallholder dairy farms and local markets and potential risk for public health in The Gambia, Senegal and Guinea. ITC (International Trypanotolerance Centre), Banjul:1-54.

Goossens, B., S. Osaer, S. Kora, K. Chandler, L. Petrie, J. Thevasagayam, T. Woolhouse, and J. Anderson. 1998. Abattoir survey of sheep and goats in The Gambia. The Veterinary Record 142:277-281.

Hoek, W., R. Sarge‐Njie, T. Herremans, T. Chisnall, J. Okebe, E. Oriero, B. Versteeg, B. Goossens, M. Sande, and B. Kampmann. 2013. Short communication: prevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) in children in The Gambia, West Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health 18:850-853.

ITC. 2016. ITC Cattle Breeding Strategy Seminar - July 2016. Personal Correspondance.

Klaasen, M., H.-J. Roest, W. van der Hoek, B. Goossens, A. Secka, and A. Stegeman. 2014. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence in small ruminants in the Gambia. PloS one 9:e85424.

Marshall, K., and L. Dempfle. 2013. Sustainable management of globally significant endemic ruminant livestock in West Africa: Guidelines for the replication and improvement of the N’Dama cattle breeding program of The Gambia. ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD).

Marshall, K., M. Ejlertsen, and J. Poole. 2011. Sustainable management of globally significant endemic ruminant livestock in West Africa (PROGEBE): Estimate of livestock demographic parameters in the Gambia.

Maurin, M., and D. f. Raoult. 1999. Q fever. Clinical microbiology reviews 12:518-553.

MoA. 2012. Gambia National Agricultural Investment Plan - GNAIP (Gap Financing). The Gambia Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs with The Gambia Ministry of Agriculture - Global Agriculture and Food Security Program  - Public Sector Window.

Njai, M. 2013. Small Ruminant Auxilliary Training Manuals. The Gambia Department of Livestock Services.

Rushen, J., A. De Passille, and L. Munksgaard. 1999. Fear of people by cows and effects on milk yield, behavior, and heart rate at milking. Journal of dairy science 82:720-727.

Osaer, S., B. Goossens, S. Kora, M. Gaye, and L. Darboe. 1999. Health and productivity of traditionally managed Djallonke sheep and West African dwarf goats under high and moderate trypanosomosis risk. Veterinary parasitology 82:101-119.

Secka, A. 2016. Gambia Cattle Breeding Strategy Plan. International Trypanotolerance Centre

Wilson, R. T. 1982. Husbandry, nutrition and productivity of goats and sheep in tropical Africa.


Biodiversity and Ecosystems

Benton, T. G., J. A. Vickery, and J. D. Wilson. 2003. Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends in ecology & evolution 18:182-188.

Brouwer, F., P. Hellegers, M. Hoogeveen, and H. Luesink. 1999. Managing nitrogen pollution from intensive livestock production in the EU: Economic and environmental benefits of reducing nitrogen pollution by nutritional management in relation to the changing CAP regime and the Nitrates Directive. LEI.

Cahoon, L. B., J. A. Mikucki, and M. A. Mallin. 1999. Nitrogen and phosphorus imports to the Cape Fear and Neuse River basins to support intensive livestock production. Environmental science & technology 33:410-415.

Carpenter, S. R., N. F. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A. N. Sharpley, and V. H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8:559-568.

DPWM. 2014. The Fifth National Report To The Convention of Biological Diversity. Department of Parks & Wildlife Management, Abuko.

Foley, J. A., R. DeFries, G. P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S. R. Carpenter, F. S. Chapin, M. T. Coe, G. C. Daily, and H. K. Gibbs. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570-574.

Hobbs, R. J. 2001. Synergisms among habitat fragmentation, livestock grazing, and biotic invasions in southwestern Australia. Conservation Biology 15:1522-1528.

Karr, J. D., W. J. Showers, J. W. Gilliam, and A. S. Andres. 2001. Tracing nitrate transport and environmental impact from intensive swine farming using delta nitrogen-15. Journal of Environmental Quality 30:1163-1175.

Kato, T., H. Kuroda, and H. Nakasone. 2009. Runoff characteristics of nutrients from an agricultural watershed with intensive livestock production. Journal of Hydrology 368:79-87.

Kleijn, D., F. Kohler, A. Báldi, P. Batáry, E. Concepción, Y. Clough, M. Diaz, D. Gabriel, A. Holzschuh, and E. Knop. 2009. On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 276:903-909.

Laurance, W. F., and E. Yensen. 1991. Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented habitats. Biological conservation 55:77-92.

Loreau, M. 2010. Linking biodiversity and ecosystems: towards a unifying ecological theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365:49-60.

Murcia, C. 1995. Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends in ecology & evolution 10:58-62.

Pan, Y., R. A. Birdsey, J. Fang, R. Houghton, P. E. Kauppi, W. A. Kurz, O. L. Phillips, A. Shvidenko, S. L. Lewis, and J. G. Canadell. 2011. A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science 333:988-993.

Tilman, D., K. G. Cassman, P. A. Matson, R. Naylor, and S. Polasky. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671-677.

Vitousek, P. M., J. D. Aber, R. W. Howarth, G. E. Likens, P. A. Matson, D. W. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger, and D. G. Tilman. 1997. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle

Woodroffe, R., and J. R. Ginsberg. 1998. Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas. Science 280:2126-2128.


Business and Economics

MacMillan, I., and J. Thompson. 2013. The Social Entrepreneur's Playbook. Wharton Digital Press, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Somda, J., M. Kamuanga, S. Münstermann, and A. Bittaye. 2003. Socio-economic characterisation of smallholder dairy systems in the Gambia: milk production, marketing and consumption. Page 57 in PROCORDEL National Conference The Gambia.

Somda, J., M. Kamuanga, S. Münstermann, K. Keita, and A. Mendes. 2004. Characteristics of the smallholder dairying farmers in West African countries: Economic viability and paths for improvement. Socio-economic research Working Paper:55.



Darboe, M. 2004. Gambia. African studies review 47:73-82.

Frenken, K. 2005. Irrigation in Africa in figures: AQUASTAT Survey, 2005. Food & Agriculture Org.

Hegazi, A., R. Bailey, B. Ahadzie, A. Alabi, and K. Peterson. 2010. Literacy, education and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in The Gambia. AIDS care 22:1340-1345.

IMF. 2017. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. International Monitary Fund World Economic Outlook Database. International Monitary Fund.

Sallah, T. M. 1990. Economics and Politics in the Gambia. The Journal of Modern African Studies 28:621-648.

UNDP. 2012. Human Development Indices. United Nations Development Programme Human Development Records:35.